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果树冻害发生后的应急减灾补救措施

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2018-04-19  来源:山东省林业厅  浏览次数:29
核心提示:近日来,山东省遭遇倒春寒天气。多个地区果树受灾,受灾面积全省超过90万亩,经济损失高达20多亿元,其中,核桃、桃、樱桃、苹果
      近日来,山东省遭遇倒春寒天气。多个地区果树受灾,受灾面积全省超过90万亩,经济损失高达20多亿元,其中,核桃、桃、樱桃、苹果受灾严重,约占受灾总面积的90%。为最大限度地降低霜冻对果树生产造成的损失,结合不同果树受灾的具体情况,有针对性的提出如下补救措施:

1、加强肥水管理,提高果树抗寒能力。从营养学角度来看,树势衰弱是万病之源。果树萌芽后,树体消耗了大量养分,花芽细胞内的蛋白质、核酸、脂类及糖类和无机盐类等快速减少,防寒抗冻能力迅速减弱,要及时追肥和叶面喷肥,提升土壤肥力。特别是上年末秋施基肥的要注意合理使用氮磷钾肥料,适时、适量补充微量元素。现蕾期发生冻害,建议施用含高硼、高磷、高锌的螯合态肥料;盛花期发生冻害,建议施用含有高锌、高氮、高磷螯合态肥料,促进树体吸收利用,增强树势、可提升花器质量,减轻冻害。

2、合理修剪回缩,降低灾害损失。对所有树和品种的受害枝、叶、果短期内不要急于修剪或摘除,应采取晚疏果、多留果的方法,保留未受害或受害轻的果实,保证多结果、结好果,挽回霜冻造成的损失。同时对树体要拉枝开角,控制营养生长,让其自然恢复。

3、人工辅助授粉,提高座果率。为了减轻花期冻害带来的产量损失,无论果园受冻害的程度大小,都要进行全园人工授粉,并喷施多肽氨基酸+0.3%硼砂、芸苔素481、天达2116。授粉时间宜在盛花初期进行,以花朵开放当天授粉的坐果率最高。

4、摘除残花,加强病害防治。苹果、梨树受冻后,花朵柱头或子房发生褐变,失去授粉受精能力,变成残花,应及时摘除,以减少对树体营养的消耗。果树遭受冻害后,树体衰弱,抵抗力差,容易发生病虫危害。因此,一是要勤检查腐烂病,发现病疤及时刮治;二是树上喷施3%的多抗霉素800~1000倍液或4%的农抗120水剂300~400倍液。

 
 
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